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    什么是清潔生產?
    清潔生產當今已成為一種世界潮流,體現了人們思想和觀念的轉變,是污染控制模式的轉變,是環境保護戰略由被動反應向主動行動的轉變,是實現可持續發展戰略的必由之路。
    清潔生產在不同的發展階段或者不同的國家有不同的叫法,例如"廢物減量化","無廢工藝","污染預防"等,但其基本內涵是一致的,都體現了一種基本精神,即對產品和產品的生產過程采用預防污染的策略來削減或消滅污染物的產生,從而滿足生產可持續發展的需要。聯合國環境規劃署在總結了各國開展的污染預防活動,并加以分析提高后,提出了清潔生產的定義,并得到國際社會的普遍認可和接受,其定義為:
    "清潔生產是一種新的創造性的思想,該思想將整體預防的環境戰略持續應用于生產過程,產品和服務中,以增加生態效率和減少人類及環境的風險。
    ――對生產過程,要求節約原材料和能源,淘汰有毒原材料,減降所有廢棄物的數量和毒性;
    ――對產品,要求減少從原材料提煉到產品最終處置的全生命周期的有得影響;
    ――對服務,要求將環境因素納入設計和所提供的服務中。"
    清潔生產的內容包括清潔的產品,清潔的生產過程和清潔工的服務三個方面。從上述清潔生產的含義,我們可以看到,它包含了生產者,消費者,全社會對于生產,服務和消費的希望,這些是:
    (1) 它是從資源節約和環境保護兩個方面對工業產品生產從設計開始,到產品使用權后直至最終處置,給與了全過程的考慮和要求。
    (2) 它不僅對生產,而且對服務也要求考慮對環境的影響。
    (3) 它對工業廢棄物實行費用有效的源消減,一改傳統的不顧費用有效或單一末端控制辦法;
    (4) 它可提高企業的生產效率和經濟效益,與末端處理相比,成為受到企業歡迎的新事物;
    (5) 它著眼于全球環境的徹底保護,為全人類共建一個潔凈的地球帶來了希望。
    因此,清潔生產可以通俗地表達成:清潔生產是人類在進行生產活動時,所有活動的出發點,都要首先考慮防止和減少產生污染。對產品的全部生產過程和消費過程的每一環節,都要進行統籌考慮和控制,使所有環節都不產生對環境的危害,不對人體健康構成威脅。


    清潔生產的意義是什么?
    清潔生產的核心是"節能、降耗、減污、增效"。作為一種全新的發展戰略,清潔生產改變了過去被動、滯后的污染控制手段,強調在污染發生之前就進行削減。這種方式不僅可以減小末端治理的負擔,而且有效避免了末端治理的弊端,是控制環境污染的有效手段。
    清潔生產對于企業實現經濟、社會和環境效益的統一,提高市場競爭力也具有重要意義。一方面,清潔生產是一個系統工程,通過工藝改造、設備更新、廢棄物回收利用等途徑,可以降低生產成本,提高企業的綜合效益;另一方面,它也強調提高企業的管理水平,提高管理人員、工程技術人員、操作工人等員工在經濟觀念、環境意識、參與管理意識、技術水平、職業道德等方面的素質。同時,清潔生產還可有效改善操作工人的勞動環境和操作條件,減輕生產過程對員工健康的影響。
    為了推動清潔生產工作,國家有關部門先后出臺了《清潔生產促進法》、《清潔生產審核暫行辦法》等法律法規,使清潔生產由一個抽象的概念,轉變成一個量化的、可操作的、具體的工作。通過清潔生產標準規定的定量和定性指標,一個企業可以與國際同行進行比較,從而找到努力的方向。


    怎樣實現清潔生產?
    《國家環境保護"十一五"規劃》中提出,要大力推動產業結構優化升級,促進清潔生產,發展循環經濟,從源頭減少污染,推進建設環境友好型社會。這就要求相關部門要加快制訂重點行業清潔生產標準、評價指標體系和強制性清潔生產審核技術指南,建立推進清潔生產實施的技術支撐體系,還要進一步推動企業積極實施清潔生產方案。同時,"雙超雙有"企業(污染物排放超過國家和地方標準或總量控制指標的企業、使用有毒有害原料或者排放有毒物質的企業) 要依法實行強制性清潔生產審核。
    清潔生產審核是實施清潔生產的前提和基礎,也是評價各項環保措施實施效果的工具。我國的清潔生產審核分為自愿性清潔生產審核和強制性清潔生產審核。污染物排放達到國家或者地方排放標準的企業,可以自愿組織實施清潔生產審核,提出進一步節約資源、削減污染物排放量的目標。國家鼓勵企業自愿開展清潔生產審核,而"雙超雙有"企業應當實施強制性清潔生產審核。


    清潔生產有哪些國際經驗?
    清潔生產是處理經濟發展與環境保護兩者之間關系的基本理念,符合可持續發展的要求,在全世界得到積極響應。許多國家都以不同的方式和手段來推進本國清潔生產的發展。
    20世紀90年代初,經濟合作和開發組織(OECD)在許多國家采取不同措施鼓勵采用清潔生產技術。自1995年以來,經合組織國家的政府開始引進產品生命周期分析,以確定在產品壽命周期(包括制造、運輸、使用和處置)中的哪一個階段有可能削減原材料投入和最有效并以最低費用消除污染物。這一戰略刺激和引導生產商、制造商以及政府政策制定者去尋找更富有想像力的途徑來實現清潔生產。
    美國、澳大利亞、荷蘭、丹麥等發達國家在清潔生產立法、組織機構建設、科學研究、信息交換、示范項目和推廣等領域已取得明顯成就。近年來,發達國家清潔生產政策有兩個重要的傾向:一是著眼點從清潔生產技術逐漸轉向清潔產品的整個生命周期;二是從多年前大型企業在獲得財政支持和其他種類對工業的支持方面擁有優先權轉變為更重視扶持中小企業進行清潔生產,包括提供財政補貼、項目支持、技術服務和信息等措施。

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